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Types of infertility

Male and female infertility

  • Female infertility: a married couple is not able to conceive a child due to female infertility factors, which is 50% of infertility cases.
  • Male infertility: a married couple is not able to conceive a child due to dysfunctions of male reproductive health, which is also found in 50% of infertility cases.
  • Combined infertility is a type of infertility when dysfunctions of male and female reproductive health affect conception, which is found in 50% of married couples.

Primary and secondary infertility

  • Primary infertility is found in couples who have never been able to conceive a child.
  • Secondary infertility is found in couples who have a difficulty to conceive a child after having already conceived a child (either carried the pregnancy to the term or had a miscarriage).

Infertility factors

  • Tubal (ectopic)/peritoneal factor is found only in females. Distal or proximal tube occlusion is found only in females. Pelvic adhesions and epithelial tissue changes of the tubes caused by inflammatory pelvic diseases (salpingo-oophoritis or adnexitis), sexually transmitted infections (especially, gonococcal and chlamydia infections), abortions and complications as well as abdominal operations on pelvic and abdominal organs. These factors are found in 40% of female infertility cases.
  • Obturative infertility is very similar to tubal-peritoneal one, but it is found in males. It is characterized by partial or complete sperm ducts occlusion caused by diseases or malformations of urethral canal and accessory sex gland, congenital or acquired sperm ducts obstruction. It may also be caused by sexually transmitted infections or male genitals injury.
  • The endocrine factor is found both in females and males. This type found in females is caused by oocyte maturation failure and ovulation failure which depend on hormone level and its alterations. In males, this factor is characterized by sperm quality and count reduction due to male hormone level reduction. Sperm alterations may also be caused by such pathologies as varicocele, hydrocele, cryptorchidism, epidemic parotitis acquired in puberty age, ecological situation (radiation, high ambient temperatures, infections, stress) and unhealthy way of life (smoking, excess consumption of alcohol and etc.)
  • The uterine factor is congenital uterine malformations, acquired structural alterations due to injuries and operations, intrauterine adhesions, i.e. intrauterine synechia.
  • Factor related to genital endometriosis is found in 30% of infertility cases.
  • Immune factors are the autoimmune process in the organism of a man, i.e. a man is immune to his own spermatozoa (for example, due to testicles injury) or a woman has antibodies to the spermatozoa of her husband. Another example of this factor is the compatibility of antigens of 1 and 2 class (HLA typing) found in a couple of spouses.
  • Idiopathic infertility, i.e. infertility causes which are impossible to detect, is found in 10% of infertility cases.

In order to find out an infertility cause and have a treatment plan elaborated is necessary to visit fertility specialists (gynecologists and andrologists specialized in the area of infertility treatment and diagnosis).

Nova Clinic has all the facilities to detect an infertility factor and suggest an efficient treatment plan.